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Viola (walteri)

Shelby J. French
Propagation Manager
Mt. Cuba Center
3120 Barley Mill Road
Hockessin, Delaware 19707
302 239 8819
302 239 5366 (fax)

Family Scientific Name: Violaceae
Family Common Name: Violet family
Scientific Name: Viola walteri
Common Name: prostrate blue violet
General Distribution: Native to North America, specifically to the southeastern United States. Ohio being its Northern range, due south through Kentucky and east to Virginia, encompassing the entire southeastern quadrant.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Vegetative
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 1 gallon container, 1 year old plants
Time To Grow: 4 months
Target Specifications: well rooted plug tray (50 cell or 72 cell)
Propagule Collection: Cuttings collected December through May from greenhouse stock plants, flowering and non-flowing stems.
Propagule Processing: "Stock plants forced in greenhouse in November, heat set at 15-21˚C (60-70˚F), under 16 hour long-day length high pressure sodium lights. Stock plants hydrated the day prior. Cuttings taken in the morning.

Cuttings from two different types of growth, central crown growth and runners. Crown growth leads to an established plant more quickly since less pinching is needed as compared to runner types. However there are far more cuttings to be obtained from runner-type stems. "
Pre-Planting Treatments: "Tip Cuttings, 5-7.6 cm (2-3 in) in length, with multiply nodes of short intervals, 2-4 sets of leaves removed from base. Rooting hormone Dip 'n Grow IBA/NA at 20X dilution rate (1% Indole-3-butyric Acid; 0.5% 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid), 5 second dip.
Cuttings stuck 2-3 per cell in 50 short plug tray 7.6 x 7.6 cm (2.3 x 2.3 in).
Media: 2 parts Pro-Mix PGX, plug and germination media; 1 part coarse vermiculite (A4).
Drenched with Essential Plus, biological root stimulant, immediately after sticking and at a 10 day interval. Neptunes Fish Emulsion applied at the recommended rate at signs of rooting.
100% rooting obtained for cuttings taken between December and March."
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
"Cuttings are placed in a propagation house with intermittent mist, cycling every 10-16 minutes with 8 seconds of mist time. Bottom heat is provided by hot water, in tubes, underneath the flats at 18-24˚C (65-75˚F).
Air temperature is set at 17˚C (62˚F) night temperature. Day temperature ranges from 17 - 22˚C (62 - 72˚F)."
Establishment Phase: 4 - 5 weeks after sticking, rooted cuttings are removed from mist and bottom heat. 5 - 6 weeks after sticking moved from propagation greenhouse to a greenhouse with shade covering, heat set at 15-21˚C (60-70˚F), under 16 hour long-day length high pressure sodium lights.
Length of Establishment Phase: 6-7 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Approximately 7 weeks after sticking rooted cuttings transplant into 1 quart fiber pots using a commercial grade potting media amended with turface at a rate of 4:1 potting media/turface. Well drained media is critical. Plants are put back in the shaded, warm greenhouse.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8-10 weeks
Outplanting performance on typical sites: Transplants were grown on continually through the winter in a temperate greenhouse, many were planted out that spring with signs of success. Those not planted in spring were kept outside over the summer.
Other Comments: "Newly rooted cuttings can be pinched after 8-10 weeks and those cuttings stuck.
It is recommended to use 2-3 cuttings per cell in a 50 plug tray, single cutting per cell can be used in 72 plug tray.

Containerized stock plants benefit from fungal drenches to prevent root and crown collapse, starting late fall through winter. A well drained media is also critical."
References: Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles and C.R. Bell. (1968). Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. "Viola walteri". United States Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved from https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=VIWA. Accessed on 2/25/2019.
U.S.D.A. Natural Resources Conservation Service. (n.d.) Viola walteri. Retrieved from https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=VIWA
"Weakley, A. S. (2015, May 21). Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States. Retrieved from


French, Shelby J.; Kniola, Ryan; O'Bryan, Spencer. 2020. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Viola walteri Plants 1 gallon container, 1 year old plants; Mt. Cuba Center Hockessin, Delaware. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2020/08/11). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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