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Solanum (umbelliferum)

Betty Young
Nurseries Sr Manager
Bldg 201, Fort Mason
San Francisco, California 94123
415-331-7521 (fax)

Family Scientific Name: Solanaceae
Family Common Name: Nightshade Family
Scientific Name: Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch.
Common Name: Bluewitch Nightshade
Species Code: SOLUMB
Ecotype: Marin County, California
General Distribution: S. umbelliferum is found in dry brushy slopes and canyone, below 2,500 feet elevation; from Mendocino County to Santa Barbara County, California.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: Deepot 40
Time To Grow: 0
Target Specifications: Height: N/A<br> Caliper: N/A<br> Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected between May 1st and July 1st.
Mature fruits are dark green.
Seed is yellowish tan and 2 mm across at maturity.
Propagule Processing: Seed Cleaning: Fruit is placed in water and crushed through a sieve.
Storage Conditions: Seeds are kept dry and stored in a refrigerator.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Hot water scarify in 190F water for 1 hour. Soak in fresh cool water overnight. Place in plastic freezer bag with an equal amount of ph nuetral peat and stratify at 40F for 1 month or until seeds begin to germinate.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Fully Controlled Greenhouse.
Sowing Method: Transplanting Germinants.
10 grams of seeds are sown per flat containing Sunshine Mix #4 Aggregate Plus (peat moss, perlite, major and minor nutrients, gypsum, and dolomitic lime).
Seeds are mixed with media to sow and are surface sown.
Flats are watered in with an automatic mist and irrigation system.
Seeds are sown on May 1st.
% Germination: 10%
Establishment Phase: Seeds germinate 21 days after sowing.
Seedlings are transplanted 21 days after germination to individual containers 2"x10" tubes (Deepot 40) containing standard potting mix of peat moss, fir bark, perlite, and sand.
Transplant Survival averages 75%.
Length of Establishment Phase: 42 days
Active Growth Phase: After establishment, seedlings are moved to the shadehouse with a 30% shade cover cloth.
Fertilize with Nutricote NPK (13-13-13) 3 months after transplanting.
References: A California Flora and Supplement, Munz, P., University of California Press, Berkeley and London, 1973.


Young, Betty. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Solanum umbelliferum Eschsch. plants Deepot 40; San Francisco, California. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2020/09/30). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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