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Dryas (drummondii)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rosaceae
Family Common Name: Rose family
Scientific Name: Dryas drummondii Richards.
Common Name: Yellow Mountain-avens
Species Code: DRYDRU
Ecotype: Gravelly riverbank, Middle Fork of Flathead River,
General Distribution: D. drummondii is found from riverbanks and foothills to the alpine zone; from Alaska through the Rocky Mountain states, and south to southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon, and east to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. It frequently colonizes gravel bars and open slopes.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainer
Time To Grow: 10 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling<br> Height: 3 cm, multiple leaves<br> Caliper: n/a<br> Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: The plumose achenes are hand collected in mid to late August when they are easily detached from the receptacle. Seeds are light tan at maturity.
Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned by using a hammermill followed by an office clipper. Seeds are stored at 0 C and low humidity in sealed containers.
Seed longevity is 3 to 5 years.
Seed dormancy is classified physiological dormancy.
% Purity: 100%
% Germination:50%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification. Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Seedlings germinate uniformly in late spring when daytime tempertures reach 21 C during the day. Seedlings are thinned at the true leaf stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings develop rapidly and quickly fill conetainers. Seedlings are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm weekly during the active growth stage.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in early fall; pots are flushed with water, irrigation is gradually reduced through September and October.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 10 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-Rooting
Type of Cutting: Summer softwood cuttings treated with 1000 ppm can be pre-rooted in a mistbed. Divisions were done from field plants with good stock increase.
Dryas forms a symbiotic relationship with Frankianitrogen fixing bacteria and is useful for restoration in nutrient poor soils.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Deno, Norman, published 1993.
Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, National Park Service, Hassell, Wendel, April 1996.
1998 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Kimball, S., unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale; Johnson, Kathy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Dryas drummondii Richards. plants 160 ml conetainer; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2020/09/30). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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