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Anemone (multifida)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Ranunculaceae
Family Common Name: Buttercup family
Scientific Name: Anemone multifida Poir
Common Name: Cliff anemone
Species Code: ANEMUL
Ecotype: Festuca idahoensis grassland; Saint Mary, Glacier National Park, Glacier Co., MT.,1371m elevation.
General Distribution: A. multifida occurs from Alaska to California, east to New York, and south in the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico. It is also native in South America. In Montana, it is found from montane foothills to the arctic-alpine zone.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml containers
Time To Grow: 8 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedlings<br> Height: 5 to 6 true leaves, 4 cm<br> Caliper: n/a<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in mid August. Seeds are mature when the achenes are brown and the cotton-like material encasing the seeds is fully expanded. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned with a hammermill at NRCS.
Seed longevity is 5 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as morpho-physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 820,000/kg
% Purity:100%
% Germination: 60%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Two year old dry stored seeds were placed into a 24 hour running water rinse prior to a 120 day outdoor cold, moist stratification.
Germination occurs when day temperatures reach 21 C in early May. Fresh seeds must be dry stored for 6 months prior to stratification or treated with gibberellic acid prior to cold, moist stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat,perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.

Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Germination appeared complete in 3 weeks. Seedlings produced 2 true leaves 3 to 4 weeks after germination.ΓΏ
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root development occurs rapidly following germination. Plants are fertilized with 13-13-13 liquid NPK fertilizer at 100 ppm as needed until root tightness is obtained at 3 months. Shoot growth appear limited the first year.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 8 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: There are 3 botanical varieties; var. multifida, var. hirsuta, and var. tetonensis.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Anemone multifida Poir plants 172 ml containers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2020/06/05). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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