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Abies (procera)

Lee Riley
USDA FS - Dorena Genetic Resource Center
34963 Shoreview Road
Cottage Grove, Oregon 97424
541-767-5709 (fax)

Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine
Scientific Name: Abies procera
Common Name: Noble, Red, or White Fir
Species Code: ABPR
Ecotype: Mt Hood National Forest, Oregon
General Distribution: Cascade range from Washington to Southern Oregon, and the Klamath Mountains in California. Scattered populations along the coast of southern WA and northern OR.
Propagation Goal: Plants
Propagation Method: Seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 262 ml (16 in3) container
Time To Grow: 24 weeks
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling Root System: Firm plug in container.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags into a 1% hydrogen peroxide (3:1 water/3% hydrogen peroxide) soak for 24 hours, rinsed, and placed in water for an additional 24 hours. The bags are placed in sealed containers in refrigeration at 1 to 3 °C for 90 days.
It is very important to check seeds weekly. If mold is evident, seeds should be treated with 1% hydrogen peroxide.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Greenhouse growing facility.
Seeds are directly sown into containers. Seeds are lightly covered with nursery grit.
Growing medium used is 40:20:20:20 peat:composted fir bark:perlite:pumice with Nutricote controlled release fertilizer (18N:6P2O5:8K2O with minors; 180-d release rate at 21C) at the rate of 1.5 g Nutricote per 262 ml container.
Establishment Phase: Germination is somewhat slow, and may take up to 3 weeks to be complete. Once the majority of germination has occurred, seedlings are fertilized for 3 weeks with soluble 12-2-14-6Ca-3Mg at 75 to 100 ppm.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: During the growing season, fertilization depends on weather. Soluble fertilizer (20-9-20 NPK, 20-18-18 NPK, or 17-5-24 NPK) at a rate of 100 to 150 ppm is applied weekly throughout the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 20 weeks
Hardening Phase: No dry-down is done to induce dormancy. Seedlings are moved to an outdoor growing area in early September.
Length of Hardening Phase: 3 to 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Mid-October
Storage Conditions: Seedlings are usually outplanted in fall. No storage except in outdoor growing area. Plants are well irrigated prior to shipping and shipped in containers.
Seedlings can be extracted in early December and frozen until spring outplanting.
Length of Storage: 3 to 4 months
Other Comments: Noble firs often live to 400 years, with some living to 600 or 700 years.
Seed production begins at 25 - 50 years, with good seed crops often at 3 - 6 year intervals.
It is shade intolerant and cannot regenerate under a closed canopy.
FACU wetland status.

References: Cope AB. 1993. Abies procera. In: Fire Effects Information System. Missoula (MT): USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station,
Fire Sciences Laboratory. URL:
https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/abipro/all.html (accessed 16 Oct 2019).

Dorena Genetic Resource Center Propagation Records, unpublished.

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. nd. Abies procera. URL: https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=ABPR (accessed 16 Oct 2019).

University of Washington. nd. Subalpine fir Abies procera noble fir. URL: https://depts.washington.edu/propplnt/Plants/abies%20procera.htm (accessed 16 Oct 2019).

USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Abies procera Rehder noble fir. URL: https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ABPR (accessed 16 Oct 2019).

Vance NC, Borsting M, Pilz D, Freed J. 2013. Part B. Abies procera Rehder. In: Special forests products: species information guide for the Pacific Northwest. Portland (OR): USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-513. URL: https://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr513/gtr513b.pdf (accessed 16 Oct 2019).


Riley, Lee E.; Fisher, Leslie. 2020. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Abies procera Plants 262 ml (16 in3) container; USDA FS - Dorena Genetic Resource Center Cottage Grove, Oregon. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/07/27). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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