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Salvia (lyrata)

Joel L. Douglas
USDA NRCS - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center
2533 County Road 65
Coffeeville, Mississippi 38922-2652
(601) 675-2588
(601) 675-2369 (fax)

Family Scientific Name: Lamiaceae
Scientific Name: Salvia lyrata L.
Common Name: Lyreleaf sage
Species Code: SALY2
General Distribution: Salvia lyrata is found from Connecticut, Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, Illinois and Missouri, south to Florida and Texas.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.)
Time To Grow: 0
Propagule Collection: Collected in NatchezTrace Parkway, from the section that runs close to Ross Barnett Reservoir, near Jackson, Mississippi by B.B. Billingsley, Jr., Janet Grabowski and Jimmie Miller on May 14, 1992.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Direct combined and cleaned using an air screen cleaner. The seeds are obovoid to ellipsoid and the size is often quite variable, which presents a challenge in cleaning. Usually there is a small quantity of seeds left after cleaning the majority of the lot that have an unacceptable amount of contaminants mixed with them, but due to their size, there is no way to screen the contaminants out using resources available at the PMC. It is important to keep all seeds from moisture sources after harvest, but it is especially critical for this species because they will stick together and then become more difficult to clean.
Seeds/Kg: 730,000.
Germination: In 1992=7%, in 1993=4%, in 1994=53% and in 1995=75%.
Purity: In 1992=99%, in 1993=99%, in 1994=98% and in 1995=98%.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: Some Salvia species respond to light (Hartmann and Kester, 1975), however, it is not known if this species does. Andersen (1968) reported fairly low germination percentages (40 to 50%) for S. aethiopis L. and S. verticillata L. Germination percentages for this species usually fall within that range. When a seed is moistened, it produces a layer of some sort of gelatinous substance surrounding itself.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment: Field grown.

Seed Propagation Method: Direct sown.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: August to September.

Emergence and Date: September to October.

Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds were plantedusing a Marliss no-till drill, with the seeds placed in the legume box. Fields were either clean tilled or closely mowed before planting. The prostrate growth habit and management requirements of lyreleaf sage allow it to be grown with established turf. Planting rate used was approximately 65 seeds per meter (6 seeds per foot) of row; however, this may have been low. Better establishment might occur if this rate was doubled or tripled. Meter openings on the drill were 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) and seeds were planted 6 mm (114 inch) deep with the furrows left open.

Establishment Phase: Seed germinates in the fall and overwinters as a rosette.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Plants begin to elongate seed heads very early in the spring.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Means that they are easily lost due to shattering. Harvest must be timed so that a maximum number of seeds are mature.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: Mid-May. Seeds are naked and held very loosely in the calyces, which meens that they are easily lost due to shattering. Harvest must be timed so that a maximum number of seeds are mature.

Total Time To Harvest: Theoretically, seeds could be harvested approximately 9 months after planting, however, it generally takes several years for a good stand to develop.

Seed Storage: Normal cool, dry storage. PMC cooler is maintained at 12.7 C (55 F) and 45% relative humidity.

Seed Dormancy: None is apparent.
Length of Storage: <b>Storage Duration: </b> 2-4 years.
Other Comments: Seed production potentials for this perennial Salvia species are not as large as several of the other species produced for the Natchez Trace Parkway. Yields up to 34 kilogram per hectare (30 pounds per acre) can be produced from well established, dense stands.
References: Andersen, R. N. 1968. Germination and establishment of weeds for experimental purposes. Weed Science Society of America, W. F. Humphrey Press, Inc., Geneva, NY. 236 p.

Hartmann, H.T. and Kester, D.E. 1975. Plant propagation principles and practices. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, NJ. 662 p.


Grabowski, Janet M.. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Propagules (seeds, cuttings, poles, etc.) Salvia lyrata L. plants USDA NRCS - Coffeeville/Jamie L. Whitten Plant Materials Center Coffeeville, Mississippi. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/09/19). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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