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Lonicera (involucrata)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Caprifoliaceae
Family Common Name: Honeysuckle family
Scientific Name: Lonicera involucrata (Rich.) Banks. ex Spreng. involucrata Banks. ex Spreng.
Common Synonym: Xylosteum involucratum (Banks ex Spreng.) Richards.
Common Name: Black twinberry
Species Code: LONINV
Ecotype: Lodgepole Forest, Many Glacier, 1500m elev.
General Distribution: L. involucrata occurs from Alaska south to California and Mexico, east to Montana to New Mexico, and irregularly Michigan and Quebec. It is found from valley bottoms to subalpine zone in moist to wet soils.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainer
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 17 cm<br> Caliper: 7 mm<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Fruit is collected in August. Hand collect when the fruit turns black. Seeds are tan at maturity. Keep fruit in plastic bags under refrigeration until it is cleaned.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are extracted from the fruit by maceration using the Dyb-Vig cleaner and is washed and screened.
Seed Storage:up to 15 years at 1 to 3C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as morpho-physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 718,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 40% without gibberellic acid treatment, 97% with gibberellic acid treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds were pretreated with 1000 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 hours. Following treatment, seeds were placed into a 48 hour running water rinse.
Next, seeds were placed into cold, moist stratification for 90 days. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and buried in moist peat moss in ventilated containers under refrigeration at 3 C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:

Sowing Method: Planting Germinants. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Germination was uniform and completed in 2 weeks when greenhouse temperatures are set at 22/15C alternating day/night) temperature cycle.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Plants were fertilized weekly with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm. This species requires frequent irrigation.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants were fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during September and October and given one final irrigation before overwintering.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: This species develops an extensive root system rapidly and will require yearly uppotting if it is to be held in the nursery for more than 1 year. 3 L (1 gallon) container stock can be produced in 1.5 years.
Both seed and cutting propagation give good rates of success.
There are 2 botanical varieties; var. involucrata, and var. ledebourii.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1990.
Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation: From Seed to Tissue Culture, Dirr and Heuser, Varsity Press, 1987.
1999 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J. and Brenneman, B., unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Lonicera involucrata (Rich.) Banks. ex Spreng. plants 172 ml conetainer; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/01/20). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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