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Campanula (rotundifolia)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Campanulaceae
Family Common Name: Harebell family
Scientific Name: Campanula rotundifolia L.
Common Name: Harebells
Species Code: CAMROT
Ecotype: Subalpine slope, 1,500m elev.,Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: C. rotundifolia is a widespread circumboreal species that occurs south to Texas, Mexico, and California. It is found from the foothills and plains to the alpine.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainer
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Height: 4 to 6 true leaves, 5 cm<br> Caliper: n/a<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Hand collect mature capsules when they begin to split at the base and turn tan in color. Seed is black at maturity. Seeds are collected and stored in paper bags prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are hand cleaned by rubbing and screening.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 16,000,000 /kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 20 to 70%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are imbibed in water, and rolled in moist paper towels inserted into an opened ziplock bag. Seeds are stratified at 1 to 3 C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding.Seeds are covered with medium.

Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled spaghnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B,0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 0.8 gram of Osmocote and 0.18 gram of Micromax per 160 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Germination was non uniform and continued over a 4 week period. True leaves appeared 4 weeks after germination.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings are fully root tight 7 weeks after germination. Seedlings are fertilized with 20-10-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm. Plants are leached with clear water once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 2to 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 9 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Campanula rotundifolia L. plants 160 ml conetainer; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/07/27). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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