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Eupatorium (perfoliatum)

John M. Englert
USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center
Bldg. 509, BARC - East, E. Beaver Dam Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 504-8175
(301) 504-8741 (fax)

Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Family Common Name: Aster Family
Scientific Name: Eupatorium perfoliatum
Common Name: Boneset
Species Code: EUPPER
Ecotype: George Washington Memorial Parkway
General Distribution: Nova Scotia and Quebec to Florida, west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma and Louisiana. Found in wet soils in low woods and open fields.
Propagation Goal: seeds
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Time To Grow: 0
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container plug. Height: 4-6". Root System: Firm full plug; roots fill container.
Propagule Collection: Collected at Washington Memorial Parkway, TRI Swamp trail by J. Englert and J. White, on 11/3/95.
Propagule Processing: Seed Processing: Seed was hand harvested and cleaned in November.
Seed storage: In seed collection bags in seed cooler at 40§F, 35% relative humidity.
Seeds/Kg: Unknown, only a small amount of seed was collected.
Germination: Untested. In 1997 germination tests produced 1,600 plants per gram of seed.
Purity: Undetermined.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seed Treatments: None given.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Propagation Environment: Greenhouse with alternating day/night temperatures; daytime temperatures vary from 70-85§F depending on natural solar; night temperatures average around 65-68§F. Plugs were grown under 14-16 hour long day conditions using high pressure sodium lighting from 4:30-10:30 p.m.

Seed Propagation Method: Seeds are hand-sown in plug propagation trays.

Container Type and Volume: Started in 392 germination plug trays; transplanted to Ropak Multipots or 72 plug trays.

Growing Media: Seed is sown into germination mix. Seedlings are transplanted into Sunshine #1 or #5 potting mix, amended with 18-6-8,180-day Nutricote SR at 0.15 lb./cu. ft., or 20 oz. per 3.8 cu. ft. bale of potting media.
Establishment Phase: Sowing Date: January.

% Emergence and Date: In 1997, 13-17 days; less under plastic.

Sowing/Planting Technique: Seeds are hand sown into germination mix. Flats are covered with plastic or kept evenly moist with mist until well-germinated.

Establishment Phase: In 1997 seedlings were transplanted from germination trays to Ropak multipots at 6-8 weeks.
Active Growth Phase: Rapid Growth Phase: Provided even moisture, treated for usual greenhouse pests as needed and fertilized lightly approximately bi-weekly as needed with soluble fertilizer at 75-100 ppm N. Foliar cutback performed at 10 weeks.
Hardening Phase: Hardening Phase: Plugs are hardened off by cooling greenhouse down or placing plug trays outdoors, weather permitting approximately 2 weeks prior to outplanting and discontinuing fertilizer at this time.
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: Approximately 13 weeks from germination to finished plug.

Harvest Date: Outplanting is April or May.

Storage Conditions: Plugs not overwintered.
References: Brown, M. L. and R. G. Brown. 1984. Herbaceous Plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Inc.

Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd edition. New York Botanical Garden.


Davis, Kathy M.; Kujawski, Jennifer. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Eupatorium perfoliatum seeds USDA NRCS - Norman A. Berg National Plant Materials Center Beltsville, Maryland. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/05/11). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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