Home Native Plant Network
NPN Protocol Details Image

Adenocaulon (bicolor)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: ASTERACEAE
Family Common Name: Sunflower Family
Scientific Name: Adenocaulon bicolor Hook
Common Name: Pathfinder
Species Code: ADEBIC
Ecotype: Cedar/Devil's Club habitat, 1000 m, Glacier National Park
General Distribution: A. bicolor occurs in moist, shady forestss, from the Cascades to Montana. It is also found in the Lake Superior region.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 11 Months
Target Specifications: <br> Height: 4 to 6 leaves; 8 cm.<br> Caliper: n/a<br> Root System: Firm plug in 7 cu. inch container
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in late August and are hand-stripped from the inflorescences.
Seeds are dark brown at maturity and covered with viscid glands. Seeds are collected in paper bags and spread on a canvas tarp in a well ventilated greenhouse during the drying process.

Collection Locality: Avalanche, Glacier National Park, MT
Propagule Processing: It is important to spread seed out evenly and to have adequate air circulation during drying process.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as non-deep physiological dormancy.
Seeds per kilogram:800,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 62 to 80%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month cold, moist outdoor stratification. Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Greenhouse and outdoor nursery.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding.
Growing medium used is 50% milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Establishment Phase: Germination appears to be fairly uniform and rapid once temperatures of 22+C or above occur in the outdoor nursery or if set in the greenhouse. Some shade is required for the establishment and growth of this species during production.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Growth following germination and thinning is rapid. Plants are root tight in containers in 4 weeks. Plants are fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm bi-weekly during the growing season.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in early fall. Containers are leached with water,and irrigation is gradually reduced through September and October.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 11 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Divisions of established nursery stock can be done because this species is rhizomatous.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, Univ. of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Deno, Norman, published 1993.
Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Adenocaulon bicolor Hook plants 172 ml conetainers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/05/08). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

Personal tools