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Salix (scouleriana)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Salicaceae
Family Common Name: Willow family
Scientific Name: Salix scouleriana Barratt. ex Hook.
Common Name: Scouler willow├┐
Species Code: SALSCO
Ecotype: Forest margin, Lake McDonald, 1100m elev., Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: S. scouleriana grows from the lowlands and foothills to mid-montane elevations; from southern Alaska and Yukon east to Manitoba and South Dakota and south through the Cascades and Rockies to California, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: vegetative
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 3 L containers
Time To Grow: 18 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container cuttings<br> Height: 20 cm<br> Caliper: 8 mm Root System: firm plug in 3L (1 gallon) containers.
Propagule Collection: Vegetative Propagation Method: Pre-rooting or Direct Sticking
Type of Cutting: Spring hardwood or summer softwood stem cuttings.
Hardwood tip cuttings are collected before bud break. Softwood cuttings can be taken any time after flowering.
Propagule Processing: Cuttings are kept moist and under refrigeration prior to pre treatment.
Pre-Planting Treatments: Rooting %: 94% rooting was obtained in hardwood cuttings without the use of IBA.
84% to 100% rooting was obtained in both hardwood and softwood cuttings treated with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm IBA. Generally, softwood stem tip cuttings root more quickly than hardwood cuttings.
Salix has latent preformed root initials present in the stem and initial rooting occurs in 1 week.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
The outdoor mistbed has automatic intermittent mist that is applied at 6 second intervals every 6 minutes. Too frequent misting will result in leaf and stem rot. Misting frequency is increased or decreased according to daily outdoor temperature and wind. Bottom heat is maintained at 21C with heating cables buried 12 cm beneath rooting medium. Rooting medium is 50% perlite and 50% sand. Mistbed is covered with shadecloth during rooting.
After cuttings are potted, they are moved to an outdoor shadehouse for 4 weeks. They are later moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery and are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Time to Transplant: 4 weeks
Cuttings that were pre rooted were lifted out of mistbed after adequate root systems were formed. Roots generate from the stem below the surface of the rooting medium.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: After cuttings were lifted from the mistbed, they were potted into 3L containers.
Growing medium used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 5 grams of Osmocote and 2 grams of Micromax per conetainer. Cuttings were irrigated after potting and placed in the shadehouse for 4 weeks.
After establishment in the shadehouse, plants were moved to full sun exposure in the outdoor nursery.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time to Harvest: 1.5 years
Harvest Date: Fall
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Twigs and foliage are often browsed by deer and elk.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press, 7th printing, 1973.
Seeds of the Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.
Glacier Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.
1996 Revegetation Monitoring Report, Glacier National Park, Asebrook, J., Lamb, B., and Funk, T., unpublished.


Lapp, Joyce; Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale; Hosokawa, Joy. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Salix scouleriana Barratt. ex Hook. plants 3 L containers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/05/11). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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