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Rubus (idaeus)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rosaceae
Family Common Name: Rose Family
Scientific Name: Rubus idaeus L.
Common Name: Wild Raspberry
Species Code: RUBIDA
Ecotype: Forest Margin, Avalache creek, Glacier National Park, Flathead County, MT 1050 meters
General Distribution: R. idaeus is found in wet or dry woods to open and often rocky mountain slopes. It is found over much of temperate North America and Eurasia. It is found on disturbed sites ranging from valley bottoms, stream and riverbanks to forest clearings and subalpine slopes on rocky soils.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 11 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling<br> Height: 1 cm with multiple leaves<br> Caliper: N/A<br> Root System: Firm plug in container.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in August when fruit is bright red and easily removed from the receptacle. Seeds are tan at maturity.
Collection Locality: Avalanche, Glacier National Park,MT.
Seeds are collected in plastic bags and kept under refrigeration prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a macerator to separate from the fruit (Dyb-vig seed cleaner) and washed and screened.
Seed longevity is at least 10 to 15 years in sealed containers at 3 to 5C with low relative humidity.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds per kilogram: 428,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 30%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds were placed into a 24 hour water soak prior to a 90 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags andburied in peat moss in ventilated containers under refrigeration at 3C.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Greenhouse and outdoor nursery.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, vermiculite.

Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are hand sown at the rate of 2 seeds per cell and lightly covered with perlite and thoroughly watered.

Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day for 12 hours and 16 to 18C during the night.
Establishment Phase: Seeds failed to germinate under greenhouse conditions. Trays were placed in the outdoor nursery so they could be subjected to more widely fluctuating temperatures.
Seedlings emerged 2 weeks after moving to the outdoor nursery.
Germination is non-uniform and continues over a 4 week period. Seedlings are irrigated only when the medium is dry on the surface during this stage.
Length of Establishment Phase: 8 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Seedlings produce multiple leaves 8 weeks after germination. Seedlings are fertilized twice weekly with 20-10-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm during this stage. Plants are fully root tight 16 weeks after establishment.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 16 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 8 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 11 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Higher rates of germination may be obtained by scarifying seeds with sulfuric acid for 20 minutes, followed by a 60 day warm, moist stratification at 20 C followed by a 90 day cold, moist stratification at 1 to 3 C.
Vegetative Propagation: Natural regeneration occurs through stolons, rhizomes, and basal stem buds. Root cuttings can be utilized as a method of propagation.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, University of Washington Press,7th printing, 1981.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press,1998.
Aspects of the Seed Ecology of Woody Plants of the Alaskan Taiga and Tundra, Densmore, PhD. Thesis, Department of Botany, Duke University, 1979.
Glacier National Park Propagation Records,unpublished.
Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants, Rose, R., Chachulski, C., and Hasse, D., Oregon State University Press, 1998.


Luna, Tara; Corey, Susan; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Rubus idaeus L. plants 160 ml conetainers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/09/19). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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