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Achillea (millefolium)

Andrea Kramer
Conservation Scientist
Chicago Botanic Garden - Research
1000 Lake Cook Road
Glencoe, Illinois 60022

Family Scientific Name: Asteraceae
Scientific Name: Achillea millefolium L. occidentalis DC
Common Name: western yarrow
Species Code: ACMIO
Ecotype: SI - Lincoln, WA
Propagation Goal: Seeds
Propagation Method: Seed
ProductType: Propagules (seeds, cutings, poles, etc.)
Time To Grow: Weeks
Propagule Collection: Purchased
Pre-Planting Treatments: APPROACH: This project aimed to determine optimal germination conditions for species currently used in restoration in the Colorado Plateau, as well as other priority forb species that may be beneficial to include in future restoration efforts. For this study, seeds were plated on 1.5% agar in petri dishes (4 replicates of 25 seeds per treatment) and incubated in growth chambers at Chicago Botanic Garden using six temperature treatments intended to represent different seed sowing times and locations in the Colorado Plateau (treatments are shown as day/night temperatures respectively, using a 12h/12h light/dark cycle):

1) early-spring (4 weeks at 52°F/34°F)
2) winter (12 weeks at 34°F) then early-spring (4 weeks at 52°F/34°F)
3) mid-spring (4 weeks at 59°F/41°F)
4) winter (12 weeks at 34°F) then mid-spring (59°F/41°F)
5) late-spring (4 weeks at 68°F/50°F)
6) winter (12 weeks at 34°F) then late-spring (68°F/50°F)
Establishment Phase: RESULTS: Almost all viable seeds from this source-identified seedlot from Lincoln, Washington germinated to 100% in all six treatments. The only treatment with less than 100% germination was treatment 5 (late-spring (4 weeks at 68°F/50°F)), where average germination was 90%. This suggests that seeding in warm conditions where the temperature does not drop below 50°F at night will lower the percent of seeds that will germinate. The figure at http://tinyurl.com/CBGSeedGermACMI shows the average percent germination and standard deviation of viable seeds for each treatment.


Foxx, Alicia; Kramer, Andrea T. 2015. Propagation protocol for production of Propagules (seeds, cutings, poles, etc.) Achillea millefolium L. Seeds Chicago Botanic Garden - Research Glencoe, Illinois. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/06/17). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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