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Geum (triflorum)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Rosaceae
Family Common Name: Rose family
Scientific Name: Geum triflorum (Pursh) Fassett
Common Synonym: Sieversia ciliata (Pursh) G. Don
Common Name: Prairie smoke
Species Code: GEUTRI
Ecotype: Idaho fescue grassland, Big Prairie, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.,1100m elevation.
General Distribution: G. triflorum occurs from sagebrush plains and dry foothills to subalpine ridges; B.C. to California, mostly east of the Cascades, east to Newfoundland, New York, Illinois, and Nebraska and the Rocky Mountain states.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 160 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 9 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling<br> Height: 5 cm<br> Caliper: n/a<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are collected in mid to late August when the plumose achenes turn tan and are easily removed from the receptacle. Seeds are light tan at maturity. Seeds are collected in paper bags and kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a hammermill and an office clipper.
Seed longevity is estimated at 3 years at 1 to 3C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 1,600,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 80%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor cold, moist stratification. A minimum of a 30 day cold, moist stratification is recommended for this species.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Outdoor nursery growing facility.
Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S ,0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Conetainers are filled and sown in late fall and irrigated thoroughly prior to winter stratification.
Seedlings germinate in spring under fluctuating outdoor temperatures and are grown under full sun exposure. Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared uniform and occurred following several days of temperatures at 21C or above during the day.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination. 4 to 6 true leaves were evident 4 weeks after germination. Plants were fertilized with 20-20-20 liquid NPK at 100 ppm fertilizer during the growing season. Plants were fully root tight with 10 to 15 true leaves in 8 weeks.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 8 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm in early fall. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leafched with clear water before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest: 7 to 9 months
Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Geum triflorum is rhizomatous. Established nursery stock can be divided for additional plants. rhizomatous.
There are 3 botanical varieties: var. ciliatum, var. campanulatum, and var. triflorum.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition,University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography,and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press,1998.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Geum triflorum (Pursh) Fassett plants 160 ml conetainers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/09/19). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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