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Pinus (monticola)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Pinaceae
Family Common Name: Pine family
Scientific Name: Pinus monticola Dougl.
Common Name: Western White Pine
Species Code: PINMON
Ecotype: Larch/Douglas-fir forest, West Glacier, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: P. monticola occurs in moist valleys to somewhat dry slopes, from near sea level to 2000 meters elevation in the Rocky Mountains. It ranges from southern B.C. to California and western Nevada, east to Idaho and western Montana. Western white pine is a very long lived species. Trees can attain ages of 400 to 600 years.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 20 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling<br> Height: 7 cm<br> Caliper: 7 mm<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Cones are collected in early October when cones turn brown and scales begin to reflex. Mature seeds are firm and dark brown in color. Cones are collected from squirrel caches in burlap sacks. Cones are spread on a canvas tarp in the greenhouse drying the drying process.Western white pine cones must be dried immediately to avoid mold development.
Propagule Processing: A tumbler and dewinger are used to clean large quantities.
Seed Storage is up to 20 years at 3 to 5C in sealed containers.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 60,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 20%
Pre-Planting Treatments: Seeds are placed into a 8:1 (v:v)water/bleach treatment for 10 minutes to surface sterilize seed coats. Next, seeds are placed into a 48 hour running water rinse prior to a 45 to 120 day cold, moist stratification. Seeds are placed in fine mesh bags and buried in moist peat moss in a ventilated container under refrigeration at 1 to 3 C. P. monticola seeds are reported to germinate to higher percentages in dark vs. light. A gibberellic acid treatment followed by 45 day prechilling, under continuous light at 21C is reported to enhance germination.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Greenhouse and outdoor nursery growing facility.

Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are covered with medium.
Growing medium used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S ,0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.
Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Medium is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared non uniform and continued for 4 weeks. Germinants shed seed coats 17 to 21 days after emergence. The low germination percentage may have been improved if a longer stratification period was used.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Plants were fertilized with 25-10-10 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during the growing season. Seedlings can be inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi at this stage. Plants were fully root tight 27 weeks after germination and averaged 7 cm in height.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 23 weeks
Hardening Phase: Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants are leached with clear water once before winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Harvest Date: September
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: 3L (1 gallon) containers of P. monticola can be produced in 2 years, with trees averaging 17 cm in height and 9 mm in caliper.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Seeds of Woody Plants in North America, Young and Young, Dioscorides Press, 1992.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2008. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Pinus monticola Dougl. plants 172 ml conetainers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/05/11). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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