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Monarda (fistulosa)

Tara Luna
USDI NPS - Glacier National Park
West Glacier, Montana 59936
(406) 888-7835

Family Scientific Name: Lamiaceae
Family Common Name: Mint family
Scientific Name: Monarda fistulosa L.
Common Name: Wild Bergamot
Species Code: MONFIS
Ecotype: Open slope, Glacier National Park, Flathead Co., MT.
General Distribution: M. fistulosa occurs from low to mid elevations and is found in open woods, fields and roadsides, from B.C east to Quebec, and south through the United States to Arizona, New Mexico,Texas, Louisiana, Alabama and Georgia.
Propagation Goal: plants
Propagation Method: seed
ProductType: Container (plug)
Stock Type: 172 ml conetainers
Time To Grow: 6 Months
Target Specifications: Stock Type: Container seedling<br> Height: 6 to 10 true leaves, 9 cm<br> Caliper:n/a<br> Root System: firm plug in conetainer.
Propagule Collection: Seeds are hand collected in fall when capsules turn tan and papery. Seeds are black at maturity.
Capsules are collected in paper bags and are kept in a well ventilated drying shed prior to cleaning.
Propagule Processing: Seeds are cleaned using a thresher and office clipper.
Seed longevity is unknown.
Seed dormancy is classified as physiological dormancy.
Seeds/Kg: 2,200,000/kg
% Purity: 100%
% Germination: 87%
Pre-Planting Treatments: 5 month outdoor stratification for material grown in the Outdoor Nursery.
A 30 day cold moist stratification was used in the refrigerator for greenhouse grown material.
This species is reported to have up to a 97% germination rate in the presence of light.
Growing Area Preparation/
Annual Practices for Perennial Crops:
Greenhouse and outdoor nursery growing facility.

Sowing Method: Direct Seeding. Seeds are surface sown.
Growing media used is 70% 6:1:1 milled sphagnum peat, perlite, and vermiculite and 30% sand with Osmocote controlled release fertilizer (13N:13P2O5:13K2O; 8 to 9 month release rate at 21C) and Micromax fertilizer (12%S, 0.1%B, 0.5%Cu, 12%Fe, 2.5%Mn, 0.05%Mo, 1%Zn) at the rate of 1 gram of Osmocote and 0.20 gram of Micromax per 172 ml conetainer.

Greenhouse temperatures are maintained at 21 to 25C during the day and 16 to 18C at night. Seedlings are hand watered and remain in greenhouse until mid May. Seedlings are then moved to outdoor nursery for the remainder of the growing season.
Seedlings are irrigated with Rainbird automatic irrigation system in early morning until containers are thoroughly leached.
Average growing season of nursery is from late April after snowmelt until October 15th.
Establishment Phase: Media is kept slightly moist during germination. Initial germination appeared uniform and occurred following several days of temperatures at 21C or above during the day.
Length of Establishment Phase: 4 weeks
Active Growth Phase: Root and shoot development occurs rapidly following germination.ΓΏ4 to 6 true leaves were evident 3 weeks after germination. Plants reached root tightness in containers in 3 months.
Length of Active Growth Phase: 12 weeks
Hardening Phase: Plants are fertilized with 10-20-20 liquid NPK at 200 ppm during August and September. Irrigation is gradually reduced in September and October. Plants were given one final irrigation prior to winterization.
Length of Hardening Phase: 4 weeks
Harvesting, Storage and Shipping: Total Time To Harvest:6 months
Harvest Date: July
Storage Conditions: Overwinter in outdoor nursery under insulating foam cover and snow.
Length of Storage: 5 months
Other Comments: Vegetative Propagation Method: Divisions of established nursery stock.
References: Flora of the Pacific Northwest, Hitchcock and Cronquist, 7th edition, University of Washington Press, 1973.
Seeding Rate Statistics for Native and Introduced Species, Hassell, Wendel, U.S.D.I. and U.S.D.A., April 1996.
Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination, Baskin and Baskin, Academic Press, 1998.
Seed Germination Theory and Practice, Deno, Norman, Penn State University, 1993.
Growing Colorado Plants From Seed: A State of the Art, Vol. 3: Forbs, U.S.D.I., NTIS General Technical Report, 1982.
Glacier National Park Native Plant Nursery Propagation Records, unpublished.


Luna, Tara; Evans, Jeff; Wick, Dale. 2001. Propagation protocol for production of Container (plug) Monarda fistulosa L. plants 172 ml conetainers; USDI NPS - Glacier National Park West Glacier, Montana. In: Native Plant Network. URL: http://NativePlantNetwork.org (accessed 2021/05/11). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, National Center for Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources.

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